Endometriosis occurs when the endometrium is developed outside the uterus, more commonly in pelvic organs, such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries or behind the uterus, or even in the intestine and bladder. It can rarely reach parts of the body that are far from the genitals (lungs, brain, auditory canal, nasal mucosa).
It is one of the most common and important causes of infertility and is related to the presence of fibroids. It affects women of all ages before menopause and in rare cases women in menopause. A characteristic symptom of endometriosis is the severe pain during the period and during sexual intercourse, as well as the inability to conceive despite their attempts.
Other symptoms that have been reported are severe cramps in the period, chronic pain in the pelvic region, bowel pain, urinary pain, gastrointestinal problems and fatigue.
After the onset of symptoms, endometriosis is diagnosed by laparoscopic surgery. During laparoscopy, a microscopic camera is inserted through a very small incision in the abdomen, so that the doctor can observe if there are tissue implants. There are cases where a biopsy is needed to better diagnose the condition and the next step is to remove the implants.
So far, unfortunately, there has been no cure to treat the condition completely. The suggested therapeutic options are the administration of contraceptive pills, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and gonadotropin progestin. These approaches can reduce pain symptoms and tissue size, but not improve fertility, which can only be assisted by surgery.
One myth about endometriosis is that it disappears after pregnancy. In fact, although there may be shrinkage of endometrial foci, due to hormonal changes and cessation of ovulation, they do not disappear. In fact, cases of more severe symptoms have been observed after childbirth and lactation.